About Iran

About Iran

Iran is situated in the south west of Asia, in the Middle East. It has an area of about 1.6 million square kilometres and with a population of about 79 million; Iran is one of the biggest countries in the region. Tehran is the largest and most populated city and also serves as the counties’ capital. The country is neighboured to the East by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the West by Iraq and Turkey, to the North by the Republic of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkmenistan and is bounded in the South by the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman. The official language is Farsi and the state religion is Islam. Iran is regarded as one of the oldest civilizations

Iran located in the middle of Asia providing it with strategic role in the region. The country is a member of the United Nation, NAM, OIC, OPEC, ECO and many other international organizations

Iran is a semi industrial country but is rich in oil and natural gas resources. It has the world’s third largest oil reserves (equating to about 130 billion barrels worth) as well as the second largest gas reserves. Iran serves as the second largest OPEC oil and gas exporter and has the potential of becoming an energy giant. Currently the largest oil fields under use are in the Khorasan and Khozestan province. Iran’s other major resources include iron, manganese, chromite, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, gold, silver, uranium, sulphur, salt, precious stones, building stones and coal.

Facts about Iran

Number of provinces: 30

Number of towns: 335

Number of counties: 889

Number of cities: 1015

Number of villages: 2400

The flag of Iran consists of three horizontal coloured bands consisting of green, white and red respectively. The Iranian emblem is situated in the middle of the flag.

Iran’s main exports include oil, natural gas, carpets and rugs, fruit, nuts (pistachios, raisins, dates), skin and hide, caviar, petrochemical products, textiles, garments, food products and construction products.

Iran’s main imports include machinery, metal parts, food, medicine, technical services and technology and chemical products

Iran is one of the world’s largest producers of agricultural products in the region and produces wheat, rice, cereals, sugar beet, fruit, seeds, pistachio, almond, walnut, cotton, milk products, wool, and caviar. Due to excessive demand for these products, it is also an importer of some of these products.

Iran’s currency is the Iranian Rial where 10 Rials equates to 1 Toman.

Transportation: Iran has an extensive railway network of around 7400 kilometres as well as around 157 000 kilometres of roads. The country has 4000 kilometres of oil pipelines and 4600 kilometres of gas pipelines

Iran’s most important ports: Abadan, Ahvaz, Shahid Beheshti port, Bandar Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bushehr port, Imam Khomeini port, Mahshahr port, Turkmen port, Khoramshahr and Noshahr

Iran Industry

According to reports by the World Bank, the added value percentage of industrial productions in the past year equated to 10.4 percent of the GDP. According to the Central Bank of Iran in the year 2013 gross national production in the mining industry was -6 percent but in 2014 it was reported that this figure had grown to +2.8 percent.

The government’s attention to large industries in year 2014 resulted in economic growth and an increase in production. The greatest challenge facing industry in Iran is a lack of financial resources and investment that has resulted in a crisis in the industrial sector and has greatly reduced production capacity.

A lack of financial resources has prevented growth of small businesses. According to statistics released by the Iranian Customs out of the top 10 exported goods, industrial goods do not play an important role


Iran Mining

With regards to mining reserves, Iran is part of the top 10 countries worldwide and the number one country in the Middle East. According to multiple reports, Iran has around 7% of the world’s resources that is situated in 12 main mines (which constitute some of the most important mines in the world). Currently 6000 mines containing 60 different minerals and substances have been identified in Iran. The country holds 8% of the zinc and 3% of the world’s total lead reserves as well as around 30 million tons of identified copper reserves.

Iran is the fourth largest producer of decorative stones. It is also has one of the world’s largest uranium, coal and iron reserves. It has been estimated that Iran has mining resources for extraction for the next 100 years. According to world statistics, Iran’s role in exporting mining resources in the world market is minimal. In 2014, the country extracted 340 tons of mining resources, which is less than 0.4% of the extraction allocated reserves. According to world standards, 1% should be extracted.

According to experts the country’s mining production has the potential to increase by 50%. At the moment 97% of mines are run by the private sector and 3% are run by the government,

The most important investment opportunities and procedures that Iran officially announced the sale and divestiture plan or stock, loans and facilities from banks and financial institutions, opening of letters of credit and financing, partnerships, and projects are Buyback,

Iran Agriculture

Agriculture in Iran is one of the most prolific in the world.

Today, the industry plays an important role in the Iranian economy. But the export share of this sector is negligible in fluctuations in economic development and national production, especially the depression crisis in recent years has had a greater impact on the products of this sector.

It is always one of the main concerns of governments to ensure food security and the development of the agricultural sector. According to statistics in 2014, in 4 main sectors of agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and animal husbandry, it has experienced a 6.6% growth and, according to FAO World Food Organization’s statistics, along with Turkey in the third place in terms of diversification of garden products and production of 22 Agricultural production is one of the first five countries in the world.

The main export of Iran’s agricultural products is pistachios, berries, dates, walnuts, melons and tomatoes, apricots, cherries, tomatoes and watermelons, which in 2013 totaled about 4 million tons of products worth $ 5.1 billion. Iran is also an importer of agricultural products including barley corn, barley, meal, soybean, whole rice, fresh and dried green banana, beef, soybean oil and sunflower oil.

Iran’s imports in the year 92 were about 540 thousand tons. One of the main problems in Iran’s agricultural sector is the lack of mechanization and waste of water and energy, resulting in reduced production. Agriculture in Iran, especially in the gardening sector, is traditionally used with 90% of human resources.

Iran is considered as a dry land in the global climate and water is one of the most important agricultural sources, according to the Ministry of Energy, 90% of the water used in agriculture is spent, while the share of this sector in the gross national product is very low. Irrigation system change is one of the most important ways to reduce water consumption in this sector.


Iran Business

Trade plays a key role in of production, industry, agriculture and mining.

In fact, commerce, and in particular foreign commerce, which leads to sales of merchandise in global markets and subsequently allowing foreign currency into country, deals with the outcome of other departments. On the other hand, the native commerce causes the economic development of country. The ability and dynamic of commerce results in the satisfaction of producers and consumers and causes growth of the whole economy. For example, Iranian commerce shared 0.5 percent of the total 3 percent growth in 2014 and also it coused 13.5 percent of GNP (gross national product).

Exporting non-oil commodities is the main aspect of Iran’s commerce development, which decreases the country’s dependence on oil income and also solves economic problems. According to the statistics of customs in 1393, the total weight of non-oil exports was 98.5 million tons, which is worth $50 billion. At the same time, Iran has imported $52.5 billion worth of non-oil commodities, which includes 41 million tons of goods. Therefore, financial flow of Iran’s foreign trade equals $102 billion in 2014. According to this report $14 billion of this amount goes for as natural gas liquids, $14 billion belongs to petrochemical products and the rest goes for all of the other export merchandises. Thus, gas liquids and petrochemical products have been the most important commodities.

In the first six month of the year 2015, China, with $3.7 billion has been the most important trade partner of Iran and Iraq, with $3 billion, is the second in Iran’s export list.

At the same time, most of Iran’s imports are from China: these imports are worth about $5.5 billion and the UAE (United Arab Emirates) with $4.5 billion worth of exports to Iran, is the second in ranking of exporters to Iran. And yet, because of the low amount of trading done in the last six month, the economic experts do not see the positive trade balance of Iran as helpful and the reason is that commercial department has not yet achieved the economic prosperity as its commercial objectives.

The tariffs and their unorganized condition in supporting the internal producers, inexistence of consumers’ rights in Iran’s tariff system and smuggling merchandise of poor quality are the major factors of this phenomenon. Moreover, limiting Iran to certain countries as its outlets and existence of sanction in recent years have imposed irrecoverable losses on Iran’s commerce.

 According to the latest announcement of global bank, Iran has taken the 130th place among 189 countries in business index.

Applying inadequate import and export policies has led to disruption of market regulation and has caused much damage to Iran’s export structure,

According to Iran’s 20-year future outlook manuscript and based on Iranian GDP (Gross Domestic product) relying on labor force and National capital Iran will be included among the developed countries. This outcome has been versioned to occur production of non-oil commodities.

Iran Tourism

Iran is located in a special geographic area between Persian Gulf and the world’s largest lake, Caspian Sea

Having large mountains and lush forests at the north, large flat deserts in the center and vast and humid beaches in the south on the golf shore; there is the possibility of enjoying four-season climate at any time of the year

In addition to a diverse climate, there is possibility of appreciating historical artifacts, buildings, jewels and museums of 3000 years old Persian and Islamic Empire civilization

Iranian Handicrafts –

Artisanal handicrafts are one of the most important Iran’s tourist attractions. It includes a wide variety of 300 branches that date back to 3 thousand years ago. Based on the variety of different kinds of handicrafts, Iran has the biggest variety of handicrafts in the world 

Because these handicrafts are scattering in different parts of Iran, these attractions exist all across the country. These artisanal handicrafts differ for each region reflecting costumes and traditions of that region or tribe. Some of the famous Iranian handicrafts includes but not limited to: Jajim weaving, Kilim weaving, Silk embroidery and Silk weaving, Carpet weaving, Zilo rug weaving, Local clothes, textile hand printing, Ghalamkari and Engraving, Pottery, Hand tile making, Traditional Locksmith, Woodturning, Wood carving, Hand make mosaics, Marquetry, Gem cutting, Turquoise inlaying, Velvet weaving, Glassblowing and Vitreous Enameling, Persian Design, Gilding and Illumination, Persian miniature. 

Iranian Artistic and cultural attractions –

Iran is consisted of various nations and races. In fact the diversity of different tribes living together is

one of Iran’s unique characters. Each of tribes in Iran has their own different customs, accents and dialects with which they have been living for centuries. Iranian tribes consist of Azeri, Arab, Balooch, Bakhtiari, Kurd, Lor, Torkmen and Fars People. In addition to their exclusive customs, which is a big tourist attraction, these tribes and nations, have histories exclusive from each other and common between them.

Iranian nomads who move to a different part of the country in the start of each season and live their life in the natural setting are another tourist attraction.

Iranian’s national costumes like Norooz (Iranian new year starting in 21st of march), folklore music and religious ceremonies some of which are ancient are also interesting to behold.

Iranian architecture is as old as Iran. Persepolis, Dome of Soltaniyeh, Khajoo Bridge and Ziggurat of ChoghaZanbil are some of many fascinating examples of Iranian architectures.  Old mosques, churches, holy shrines, temple and old places of worships are also an attraction for tourists interested in architecture.

Iranian Poetry is another essential components of Iranian art. Poets like Ferdosi, Hafez, Khayyam, Sa’adi, Attar and Rumi are famous examples of Iranian poets.

Iranian Handicrafts are another aspect of Iranian art. These handicrafts, which differ according to the tribe and part of the country they come from, can be used as precious souvenirs for people visiting these parts.

Iranian architecture is as old as Iran. Persepolis, Dome of Soltaniyeh, Khajoo Bridge and Ziggurat of ChoghaZanbil are some of many fascinating examples of Iranian architectures.  Old mosques, churches, holy shrines, temple and old places of worships are also an attraction for tourists interested in architecture.

Iranian Poetry is another essential components of Iranian art. Poets like Ferdosi, Hafez, Khayyam, Sa’adi, Attar and Rumi are famous examples of Iranian poets.

Iranian Handicrafts are another aspect of Iranian art. These handicrafts, which differ according to the tribe and part of the country they come from, can be used as precious souvenirs for the people visiting these parts

Iran Climate

Overall, three types of climate exist in Iran, Desert and semi-desert climate, the mild climate of the Caspian region and the moderate highland climate.

The difference of temperature between the coldest and the hottest regions of Iran can reach up to 50-centigrade degrees. On the other hand the center of Loot desert has been inscribed as the hottest point of earth in summer of the years 2004 and 2005. The rate of rainfall reaches over 2200 millimeters in north of Iran and in contrast it gains an average of less than 15 millimeters in central deserts of Iran.

North coasts of Iran have warm and humid summers and winters. In the west and North West of Iran there are mild and moderate climate summers and cold and snowy winters. In the south, it is hot and humid in the summer and the winters are warm and pleasant.

Ecotourism is another opportunity for tourists in Iran.

Iran Ecotourism –

Iran is located on the Iran plateau, which is a tableland 1000 meters above the sea level and contains high mountain ranges and vast dry desert regions.

As many say you can enjoy all seasons’ weather in one day all year round in Iran. From high and snow-covered mountains like beautiful majestic mount Damavand and mount Sabalan, large lakes and rivers, stunning jungles and grasslands in north to hot and dry lands in the Loot desert and tropical weather in the coast of Persian golf there is the possibility of enjoying different weather activities all year round.

There are a large variety of plants and animal species in Iran. The variety of plants and animals existing in the south causes the annual immigration of birds each year from Siberia and Russia. The existence of warm water both in north and south of Iran has led to a large variation of aquatic animals and plants. Based on the statistics of research institute of forests and rangelands, Iran is the home to 10 thousand plant species.

Ecotourism can be considered an attractive aspect of tourism that includes mountaineering, caving, migration of nomads, diving, ice climbing, desert hiking, biking in desert and rock climbing.

Iran historical tourism attractions 

Sialk civilization, which dates back to seven thousand years ago, is one of the most ancient human civilizatin that is located in the center of Iran.

The burnt city of Kassites civilization and Urartu civilization are ancient monuments found in Iran.

 Iran’s history is divided into two categories: before and after Islam conquest. The civilizations existing before Islam were Mads, Achaemenids, Seleucids, Parthian and Sassanids, chronologically. The Islamic conquest happened after the year 205 AH and Islamic culture emerged with Iranian culture after that. Old marketplaces, mosques, caravanserais, citadels, castles, churches, fire temples, old public baths, historical cities, palaces, museums, gardens, underground cities and ancient temples are Iran’s current historical cites

Iran sports Attractions –

According to some historical sources like Avesta, some sports in Iran age older than the same games played in Greece. For example, while archery and canoeing were among main sports performed in Iran, Grecians did not practice them. Iran is the first among Oriental countries in which physical education has been an important part of education system. In his book Herodotus cites that in Iran children learn three things: horse riding, archery and truthfulness.

Since 1306, physical education has been assigned as a school subject and in 1316 Tehran’s teachers college held the first physical education bachelor course. In 1389, Ministry of Sports was made by integration of Physical Education Organization and Youth Organization.

Iranian students who were living in Europe in Olympic games in 1936, which were held in Berlin in Nazi Germany, was the first participation of Iranian in foreign athletics games. Iran’s national Olympic committee was formed in 1325 and a year later Iran became officially one of the members of international Olympic committee. Iran is included in the countries from which many individuals with disability take part in Paralympic Games. The reason is existence of numerous Iranian veterans with disability due to the 8-year Iran-Iraq War. Activities such as caving, water skiing in coasts, snow skiing in ski resorts, desert tourism, mountaineering and diving can be enjoyed in Iran.


Investment Opportunities in Iran


On the basis of Iran national development outlook, investment priorities in Iran are divided into three main categories.

Iran’s government encourages foreign investments. It also asks foreign investors to study the law on promotion and protection of foreign investment and its regulations accurately and carefully in order to get to know their legal commitments and requirements. In addition it encourages them to get to know their rights and the facilities and supports, which are due to their investment.

Foreign financial resources and lines of credit, which are known as Finance in Iran, can be used for implementing the projects, purchasing capital equipment and goods, generating production plans and doing technical and engineering services for projects, according to terms of concluded financial agreement with foreign investors.

According to the latest decision by the committee of ministers and the criteria of the fifth reform and development plan, the way of doing this process is as following:

  1.  Acceptable activities
  2.  Qualifieds
  3. Required bails
  4. Interest rate and its charges
  5. Pay ceiling
  6. Duration of using facilities
  7. Repayment period
  8. Governmental and non-governmental departments

Directory of foreign funding explains the procedure. It starts from considering foreign investors’ application for foreign investment, and after routine process issuing foreign investment license. The different steps of this process are as following:

  • Considering foreign investors’ application for foreign investment and ends to issuing foreign investment license.
  • Supports granted by Iran’s government
  • Rights, facilities and supports given by Iran’s government to foreign investors
  • Foreign investors’ legal commitments and requirements
  • Granting advantages and ensured facilities to foreign investor

According to Iran’s national development plan, investment priorities in Iran are divided into three main categories:

  • Trade investment priorities
  • Industry investment priorities
  • Mine investment priorities


:Trade investment priorities in Iran are as following

  1. Setting up permanent international exhibition
  2. Setting up permanent handmade rugs exhibition
  3. Establishing a bank for syndicates
  4. Developing and elaborating trade substructures such as establishing export terminals
  5. Establishing shipping lines and airlines in order to export the country’s productions to suitable outlets
  6. Building logistic towns or trade hubs
  7. Build or developing guild towns
  8. Establishing and developing chain stores supplying merchandises and offering services
  9. Establishing fruit and vegetable markets
  10. Establishing and developing virtual stores and network marketing
  11. Developing and upgrading quality of syndicates’ services with the goal of customers’ satisfaction
  12. Developing and organizing distribution companies and support for establishing of logistic companies
  13. Establishing capable marketing companies and exporting industrial productions


:Industry investment priorities in Iran are as following

Pharmaceutical Industries
Food industry
electronics industry
Machine-building industry and equipment
Textile and Apparel Industries
Petrochemical and refinery industries
Polymer industries
Cellulose industries
chemical industry
Medical Equipment Industries
Automotive industry, automotive parts and power engines

:Mine investment priorities in Iran are as following

The priorities of Iran’s mineral investment are as follows:

Metals and metal products
Non-metallic minerals

1) Priority of Iran’s investments in mine exploration

Copper and Polymetal Exploration
Discovering Phosphates
Nickel exploration
Discovery of Aluminum Bauxite Priority Production
Prospecting and exploration of raw iron ore
Additional exploration for the identification of precious and semi precious stones

2) Priority of Iran’s investments in the mining sector

Exploitation and mining mechanized coal mines
Use of brine for extraction of potassium and magnesium
Extraction of aluminum production with priority bauxite
Exploitation of iron ore mines

3) Priority of Iran’s investments in metals and metal products

Low diameter copper pipes
Low diameter copper wire
Alloy steel wire 2.5 to 15 mm (in coil)
Aluminum foil below 9 micron
Aluminum wrap
Aluminum Alloy Sheet (Deep Tension)
Forging type flanges (with standard consumption in oil, gas and petrochemical industries)
Forging Parts of Railway Industries
Types of automotive casting components (automotive and other related industrial parts)
The car’s shaft in the forging method

4) Priority of Iran’s investments in non-metallic minerals

Extraction of salts from Urmia Lake salt
Recovery and recovery of refractory products
Refractory fiber
Glass fiber
Basalt fiber
Ceramic fiber
Dampite refractory brick
Hydrated lime
Brike from coal waste
Coal concentrate
Active bentonite
Calcite dolomite
Chinese and ceramic paints
Ceramic parts with special applications
Fireproof parts and components
Ceramic rolls
Industrial ceramics
Precious and semi precious stones processing
Zeolite processing
Fluorine processing
Refractory insulating sheets (sheets)
Glass foam
Laboratory tubes (UV)
Glasses of salar
Drinking Glassware (Vial)
Production of nano glasses
Modern brick production with the priority of refurbishing and refurbishing brick industry (technology change to tunnel furnace)
Digital Printing Composition for the Tile and Ceramic Industry
Aluminum ceramic bullets



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